How is the Role of Ports in the Logistics World
From the transportation side, the port is a part of the total transportation chain (transportation system). The total transportation chain is a series of transportation transfer processes from the sender to the recipient of goods involving various points of the transfer process and modes of transportation. Broadly speaking, the transportation chain is illustrated in Figure 1 below. The figure shows that as a transportation sub-system, the port interacts with other supporting processes.
Port Logistics System
Currently the port logistics cost in Indonesia reaches 17% of the total operating costs of the business. This figure is very high compared to other countries such as Malaysia, only 8%, Philippines 7%, and Singapore 6%. Constraints vary from roads, telecommunications, incomplete or damaged port facilities, to the low supply of heavy equipment and vehicles.
To be able to handle the problems above, it is necessary to have proper regulations to regulate logistics transportation equipment, especially ships. Without this regulation, there is a lack of optimism in the role of the port, which is shown by, among other things, the long waiting time for goods at the port. In Tanjung Priok, for example, goods reaching the port until going out again need 4.9 days. Compare with the US which is only 1.2 days, the Netherlands 1.1 days, and Singapore only 1.0 days.
Port Monitoring System
The Tanjung Perak Port is one of the largest ports in Indonesia, where dozens or even hundreds of ships operate at this port. With high density marine traffic monitoring a sea traffic control system is needed based on fuzzy logic. The developed system can monitor and control ships operated in Tanjung Perak Surabaya, where the variables used as input are the position and speed of the ship. These waters are divided into zones which are also based on speed and position and as a reference for monitoring and controlling the system. If a ship violates a predetermined rule, the system developed will send a warning that the ship has broken the rule and must return according to applicable standards.
Ports have roles and functions based on various points of view. The port is a node in the transportation network, as a gateway for economic activity, a place to switch modes of transportation, supporting industrial and / or trade activities, and a place for distribution, production and consolidation of cargo or goods. Politically, the port plays a role in realizing the Archipelagos Insight and state sovereignty.